Engineering is the science, discipline, art and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or inventions
The single most important principle for the strong design of structures is called the bending moment. Basically, a moment in engineering parlance is the principle of the lever. If you want to tighten a bolt, you can hold a wrench close to the bolt or you could grab the wrench at the end. The end of the wrench gives you more advantage. The distance at which a force acts influences the outcome. That is the principle of the moment.
Biotechnology can be broadly defined as “using living organisms or their products for commercial purposes.” As such, biotechnology has been practiced by human society since the beginning of recorded history in such activities as baking bread, brewing alcoholic beverages, or breeding food crops or domestic animals.
A narrower and more specific definition of biotechnology is “the commercial application of living organisms or their products, which involves the deliberate manipulation of their DNA molecules” (see glossary for definitions of bold-print words). This definition implies a set of laboratory techniques developed within the last 20 years that have been responsible for the tremendous scientific and commercial interest in biotechnology, the founding of many new companies, and the redirection of research efforts and financial resources among established companies and universities. These laboratory techniques provide scientists with a spectacular vision of the design and function of living organisms, and provide technologists in many fields with the tools to implement exciting commercial applications.
Application of engineering principles in biotech industries
1)The biotechnology industry emerged in the 1970s, based largely on a new recombinant DNA technique
2)Biotechnology has created more than 200 new therapies and vaccines, including products to treat cancer, diabetes, HIV/ AIDS and autoimmune disorders.
3)Agricultural biotechnology benefits farmers, consumers and the environment.by increasing yields and farm income, decreasing pesticide applications and improving soil and water quality, and providing healthful foods for consumers.
4)Environmental biotech products make it possible to clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by harnessing pollutioneating microbes.
5)Industrial biotech applications have led to cleaner processes that produce less waste and use less energy and water in such industrial sectors as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food, energy, and metals and minerals. For example, most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes
Main engineering principles that play an important role in Biotech industries:
Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism’s genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Genetic engineering techniques have found some successes in numerous applications. Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research.
Bioprocess Engineering is a specialization of Chemical Engineering or of Agricultural Engineering. It deals with the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials
Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition to producing useful materials, modern chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques – such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and biomedical engineering. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.
These are found to be the major applications of enginnering principles in biotech industries